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Project for Pavel K. Web development Project for Ramazan A. Project for Muhammad Tahir M. Kollywood Status Logo actualiser un site web stopcafards. The latter case involves lattice paths that are non-intersecting but that are allowed to have osculating contact points, for which the tangent method was argued to still apply. For each problem we estimate the large size asymptotics of a certain one-point function using LU decomposition of the corresponding Gessel—Viennot matrices, and a reformulation of the result amenable to asymptotic analysis. The concept of a tangent is important in understanding many topics in mathematics and science.

Earlier studies on students' understanding of the concept of a tangent have reported that they have various misunderstandings and experience difficulties in transferring their knowledge about the tangent line from Euclidean geometry into calculus. Comparative drug release measurements in limited amounts of liquid: a suppository formulation study. A novel method for the investigation of drug formulations in limited liquid volumes is presented.

The experimental setup consists of a measurement cell containing an absorbent sponge cloth placed between two parallel electrodes. Conductivity measurements are used to monitor the drug release from the dosage form. By varying the amount of water contained in the absorbent cloth surrounding the dosage form, it is possible to measure the drug release performance of the dosage form in very limited amounts of water. The method was employed to test four different tablet formulations consisting of the model drug NaCl incorporated in excipient matrices of hard fat, polyethylene glycol, microcrystalline cellulose and a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium Ac-Di-Sol.

The drug release rates of the different formulations in limited water volumes differed markedly from the release rates in an excess of water. Whereas the release rates from all tablet types in an excess of water showed only minor differences among the tablet types, the release rates from the tablets formulated with disintegrating excipients were clearly superior in limited water volumes. The developed method for drug release in limited volumes of liquid should be suitable for evaluation of rectal dosage forms. Solution of D dimensional Dirac equation for hyperbolic tangent potential using NU method and its application in material properties.

Suparmi, A. The analytical solution of D-dimensional Dirac equation for hyperbolic tangent potential is investigated using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. In the case of spin symmetry the D dimensional Dirac equation reduces to the D dimensional Schrodinger equation. The D dimensional relativistic energy spectra are obtained from D dimensional relativistic energy eigen value equation by using Mat Lab software. The corresponding D dimensional radial wave functions are formulated in the form of generalized Jacobi polynomials.

The thermodynamically properties of materials are generated from the non-relativistic energy eigen-values in the classical limit. In the non-relativistic limit , the relativistic energy equation reduces to the non-relativistic energy. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation.

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Contains 5 figures. This generic type of device includes projection tangent screens, target A tangent screen campimeter is an AC-powered or battery-powered device that is a large square The AC-powered device and the battery-powered device are exempt from the premarket Visual curve completion is a fundamental perceptual mechanism that completes the missing parts e.

However, determining psychophysically such desired properties is difficult and researchers still debate what they should be in the first place. We formalize the problem in variational terms, we analyze it theoretically, and we formulate practical algorithms for the reconstruction of these completed curves. Finally, we demonstrate a variety of curve completions and report comparisons to psychophysical data and other completion models.

HIgh performance computing and the widespread availabilities of geospatial physiographic and forcing datasets have enabled consideration of flood impact predictions with longer lead times and more detailed spatial descriptions. We are now considering multi-hour flash flood forecast lead times at the subdivision level in so-called hydroblind regions away from the National Hydrography network.

However, the computational demands of such models are high, necessitating a nested simulation approach. Research on hyper-resolution hydrologic modeling over the past three decades have illustrated some fundamental limits on predictability that are simultaneously related to runoff generation mechanism s , antecedent conditions, rates and total amounts of precipitation, discretization of the model domain, and complexity or completeness of the model formulation.

This latter point is an acknowledgement that in some ways hydrologic understanding in key areas related to land use, land cover, tillage practices, seasonality, and biological effects has some glaring deficiencies. This presentation represents a review of what is known related to the interacting effects of precipitation amount, model spatial discretization, antecedent conditions, physiographic characteristics and model formulation completeness for runoff predictions.

These interactions define a region in multidimensional forcing, parameter and process space where there are in some cases clear limits on predictability, and in other cases diminished uncertainty. Limited data tomographic image reconstruction via dual formulation of total variation minimization. The X-ray mammography is the primary imaging modality for breast cancer screening. For the dense breast, however, the mammogram is usually difficult to read due to tissue overlap problem caused by the superposition of normal tissues. The digital breast tomosynthesis DBT that measures several low dose projections over a limited angle range may be an alternative modality for breast imaging, since it allows the visualization of the cross-sectional information of breast.

The DBT, however, may suffer from the aliasing artifact and the severe noise corruption. To overcome these problems, a total variation TV regularized statistical reconstruction algorithm is presented. Inspired by the dual formulation of TV minimization in denoising and deblurring problems, we derived a gradient-type algorithm based on statistical model of X-ray tomography. The objective function is comprised of a data fidelity term derived from the statistical model and a TV regularization term.

The gradient of the objective function can be easily calculated using simple operations in terms of auxiliary variables. After a descending step, the data fidelity term is renewed in each iteration. Since the proposed algorithm can be implemented without sophisticated operations such as matrix inverse, it provides an efficient way to include the TV regularization in the statistical reconstruction method, which results in a fast and robust estimation for low dose projections over the limited angle range.

Initial tests with an experimental DBT system confirmed our finding. Limit analysis and homogenization of porous materials with Mohr-Coulomb matrix. Part I: Theoretical formulation. The present two-part study aims at investigating the specific effects of Mohr-Coulomb matrix on the strength of ductile porous materials by using a kinematic limit analysis approach. While in the Part II, static and kinematic bounds are numerically derived and used for validation purpose, the present Part I focuses on the theoretical formulation of a macroscopic strength criterion for porous Mohr-Coulomb materials.

To this end, we consider a hollow sphere model with a rigid perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb matrix, subjected to axisymmetric uniform strain rate boundary conditions. Taking advantage of an appropriate family of three-parameter trial velocity fields accounting for the specific plastic deformation mechanisms of the Mohr-Coulomb matrix, we then provide a solution of the constrained minimization problem required for the determination of the macroscopic dissipation function. The macroscopic strength criterion is then obtained by means of the Lagrangian method combined with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions.

After a careful analysis and discussion of the plastic admissibility condition associated to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, the above procedure leads to a parametric closed-form expression of the macroscopic strength criterion. The latter explicitly shows a dependence on the three stress invariants. In the special case of a friction angle equal to zero, the established criterion reduced to recently available results for porous Tresca materials.

Finally, both effects of matrix friction angle and porosity are briefly illustrated and, for completeness, the macroscopic plastic flow rule and the voids evolution law are fully furnished. The derivative and tangent operators of a motion in Lorentzian space. In this paper, by using Lorentzian matrix multiplication, L- Tangent operator is obtained in Lorentzian space. The L- Tangent operators related with planar, spherical and spatial motion are computed via special matrix groups. L- Tangent operators are related to vectors.

Some illustrative examples for applications of L- Tangent operators are also presented. An arc tangent function demodulation method of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot high-temperature pressure sensor. A new demodulation algorithm of the fiber-optic Fabry-Perot cavity length based on the phase generated carrier PGC is proposed in this paper, which can be applied in the high-temperature pressure sensor. This new algorithm based on arc tangent function outputs two orthogonal signals by utilizing an optical system, which is designed based on the field-programmable gate array FPGA to overcome the range limit of the original PGC arc tangent function demodulation algorithm.

The simulation and analysis are also carried on. The paper analyzes the dispersion of the mechanical parameters and its influence on the forming limit curves of sheet metals. The tests have been made for the case of the DC01 steel sheets. The dispersion of the mechanical parameters has been observed during the experimental research. On the basis of this dispersion, a forming limit band has been calculated using an alternate formulation of Hora's model MMFC. Toward more accurate loss tangent measurements in reentrant cavities. Karpova has described an absolute method for measurement of dielectric properties of a solid in a coaxial reentrant cavity.

His cavity resonance equation yields very accurate results for dielectric constants. However, he presented only approximate expressions for the loss tangent. This report presents more exact expressions for that quantity and summarizes some experimental results. Designing worked examples for learning tangent lines to circles. Geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with shape and space, including the circle. A difficult topic in the circle may be the tangent line to circle.

This is considered a complex material since students have to simultaneously apply several principles to solve the problems, these are the property of circle, definition of the tangent , measurement and Pythagorean theorem.

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This paper discusses designs of worked examples for learning tangent line to circles and how to apply this design to an effective and efficient instructional activity. When students do not have sufficient prior knowledge, solving tangent problems might be clumsy, and as a consequence, the problem-solving activity hinders learning. According to a Cognitive Load Theory, learning occurs when students can construct new knowledge based on the relevant knowledge previously learned.

When the relevant knowledge is unavailable, providing students with the worked example is suggested. Worked example may reduce unproductive process during learning that causes extraneous cognitive load. Nevertheless, worked examples must be created in such a way facilitate learning. Formulation approaches to pediatric oral drug delivery: benefits and limitations of current platforms. PubMed Central. Introduction: Most conventional drug delivery systems are not acceptable for pediatric patients as they differ in their developmental status and dosing requirements from other subsets of the population.

Technology platforms are required to aid the development of age-appropriate medicines to maximize patient acceptability while maintaining safety, efficacy, accessibility and affordability. Areas covered: The current approaches and novel developments in the field of age-appropriate drug delivery for pediatric patients are critically discussed including patient-centric formulations , administration devices and packaging systems. Expert opinion: Despite the incentives provided by recent regulatory modifications and the efforts of formulation scientists, there is still a need for implementation of pharmaceutical technologies that enable the manufacture of licensed age-appropriate formulations.

Harmonization of endeavors from regulators, industry and academia by sharing learning associated with data obtained from pediatric investigation plans, product development pathways and scientific projects would be the way forward to speed up bench-to-market age appropriate formulation development. A collaborative approach will benefit not only pediatrics, but other patient populations such as geriatrics would also benefit from an accelerated patient-centric approach to drug delivery.

Reverse- Tangent Injection in a Centrifugal Compressor. Injection of working fluid into a centrifugal compressor in the reverse tangent direction has been invented as a way of preventing flow instabilities stall and surge or restoring stability when stall or surge has already commenced. The invention applies, in particular, to a centrifugal compressor, the diffuser of which contains vanes that divide the flow into channels oriented partly radially and partly tangentially. In reverse- tangent injection, a stream or jet of the working fluid the fluid that is compressed is injected into the vaneless annular region between the blades of the impeller and the vanes of the diffuser.

As used here, "reverse" signifies that the injected flow opposes and thereby reduces the tangential component of the velocity of the impeller discharge. At the same time, the injected jet acts to increase the radial component of the velocity of the impeller discharge. Measurement of corneal tangent modulus using ultrasound indentation. Biomechanical properties are potential information for the diagnosis of corneal pathologies. An ultrasound indentation probe consisting of a load cell and a miniature ultrasound transducer as indenter was developed to detect the force-indentation relationship of the cornea.

The key idea was to utilize the ultrasound transducer to compress the cornea and to ultrasonically measure the corneal deformation with the eyeball overall displacement compensated. Twelve corneal silicone phantoms were fabricated with different stiffness for the validation of measurement with reference to an extension test. In addition, fifteen fresh porcine eyes were measured by the developed system in vitro. The mean tangent moduli of the porcine corneas measured by the proposed method were 0. The coefficient of variation CV and intraclass correlation coefficient ICC of tangent modulus were The preliminary study showed that ultrasound indentation could be applied to the measurement of corneal tangent modulus with good repeatability and improved measurement accuracy compared to conventional surface displacement-based measurement method.

The ultrasound indentation can be a potential tool for the corneal biomechanical properties measurement in vivo. A numerical formulation and algorithm for limit and shakedown analysis of large-scale elastoplastic structures.

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In this paper, a novel direct method called the stress compensation method SCM is proposed for limit and shakedown analysis of large-scale elastoplastic structures. Without needing to solve the specific mathematical programming problem, the SCM is a two-level iterative procedure based on a sequence of linear elastic finite element solutions where the global stiffness matrix is decomposed only once.

In the inner loop, the static admissible residual stress field for shakedown analysis is constructed. In the outer loop, a series of decreasing load multipliers are updated to approach to the shakedown limit multiplier by using an efficient and robust iteration control technique, where the static shakedown theorem is adopted. Three numerical examples up to about , finite element nodes confirm the applicability and efficiency of this method for two-dimensional and three-dimensional elastoplastic structures, with detailed discussions on the convergence and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

A number of geophysical applications require the use of the linearized version of the full model. One such example is in numerical weather prediction, where the tangent linear and adjoint versions of the atmospheric model are required for the 4DVAR inverse problem. The part of the model that represents the resolved scale processes of the atmosphere is known as the dynamical core. Advection, or transport, is performed by the dynamical core. It is a central process in many geophysical applications and is a process that often has a quasi-linear underlying behavior.

However, over the decades since the advent of numerical modelling, significant effort has gone into developing many flavors of high-order, shape preserving, nonoscillatory, positive definite advection schemes. These schemes are excellent in terms of transporting the quantities of interest in the dynamical core, but they introduce nonlinearity through the use of nonlinear limiters. The linearity of the transport schemes used in Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 GEOS-5 , as well as a number of other schemes, is analyzed using a simple 1D setup.

The linearized version of GEOS-5 is then tested using a linear third order scheme in the tangent linear version. The linearity of a selection of common advection schemes is tested and examined with a view to their use in the tangent linear and adjoint versions of an atmospheric general circulation model. The schemes are tested within a simple offline one-dimensional periodic domain as well as using a simplified and complete configuration of the linearised version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 GEOS All schemes which prevent the development of negative values and preserve the shape of the solution are confirmed to have nonlinear behaviour.

The piecewise parabolic method PPM with certain flux limiters , including that used by default in GEOS-5, is found to support linear growth near the shocks. This property can cause the rapid development of unrealistically large perturbations within the tangent linear and adjoint models. It is shown that these schemes with flux limiters should not be used within the linearised version of a transport scheme. The results from tests using GEOS-5 show that the current default scheme a version of PPM is not suitable for the tangent linear and adjoint model, and that using a linear third-order scheme for the linearised model produces better behaviour.

Using the third-order scheme for the linearised model improves the correlations between the linear and non-linear perturbation trajectories for cloud liquid water and cloud liquid ice in GEOS Diffusion tensor analysis with invariant gradients and rotation tangents. Guided by empirically established connections between clinically important tissue properties and diffusion tensor parameters, we introduce a framework for decomposing variations in diffusion tensors into changes in shape and orientation.

Tensor shape and orientation both have three degrees-of-freedom, spanned by invariant gradients and rotation tangents , respectively. As an initial demonstration of the framework, we create a tunable measure of tensor difference that can selectively respond to shape and orientation.

Second, to analyze the spatial gradient in a tensor volume a third-order tensor , our framework generates edge strength measures that can discriminate between different neuroanatomical boundaries, as well as creating a novel detector of white matter tracts that are adjacent yet distinctly oriented. Finally, we apply the framework to decompose the fourth-order diffusion covariance tensor into individual and aggregate measures of shape and orientation covariance, including a direct approximation for the variance of tensor invariants such as fractional anisotropy. Quantum particles in general spacetimes: A tangent bundle formalism.

Using tangent bundle geometry we construct an equivalent reformulation of classical field theory on flat spacetimes which simultaneously encodes the perspectives of multiple observers. Its generalization to curved spacetimes realizes a new type of nonminimal coupling of the fields and is shown to admit a canonical quantization procedure.

For the resulting quantum theory we demonstrate the emergence of a particle interpretation, fully consistent with general relativistic geometry. The path dependency of parallel transport forces each observer to carry their own quantum state; we find that the communication of the corresponding quantum information may generate extra particles on curved spacetimes. A speculative link between quantum information and spacetime curvature is discussed which might lead to novel explanations for quantum decoherence and vanishing interference in double-slit or interaction-free measurement scenarios, in the mere presence of additional observers.

The Cretaceous superchron geodynamo: Observations near the tangent cylinder. If relationships exist between the frequency of geomagnetic reversals and the morphology, secular variation, and intensity of Earth's magnetic field, they should be best expressed during superchrons, intervals tens of millions of years long lacking reversals. Here we report paleomagnetic and paleointensity data from lavas of the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron that formed at high latitudes near the tangent cylinder that surrounds the solid inner core.

The time-averaged field recorded by these lavas is remarkably strong and stable. When combined with global results available from lower latitudes, these data define a time-averaged field that is overwhelmingly dominated by the axial dipole octupole components are insignificant. These observations suggest that the basic features of the geomagnetic field are intrinsically related.

Superchrons may reflect times when the nature of core—mantle boundary heat flux allows the geodynamo to operate at peak efficiency. Internal mammary lymph node inclusion in standard tangent breast fields: effects of body habitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the variability of internal mammary node IMN coverage with standard breast tangent fields using surface anatomy as determined by computed tomography CT planning for patients treated with either breast-conserving treatment or postmastectomy, and to evaluate the influence of body habitus and shape on IMN coverage with standard tangent fields.

This prospective study included consecutive women with breast cancer who underwent either local excision or mastectomy and had standard tangent fields intended to cover the breast plus a margin simulated using surface anatomy. CT planning determined the location of the IMN with respect to the tangent fields designed from surface anatomy. The internal mammary vessels were used as surrogates for the IMNs.

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CT measurements of the presternal fat thickness and anteroposterior AP and transverse skeletal diameters were made to determine their relationship to the inclusion of IMNs within the tangent fields. IMN inclusion was inversely correlated with presternal fat thickness. Thoracic skeletal shape was not associated with IMN inclusion. Standard tangent fields generally do not cover the IMNs completely but may cover them at least partially in a majority of patients.

The presternal fat thickness is inversely correlated with IMN inclusion in the tangent fields. Ionized gas clouds near the Sagittarius Arm tangent. Radio recombination lines RRLs are the best tracers of ionized gas. Simultaneous observations of multi-transitions of RRLs can significantly improve survey sensitivity. These transitions were then stacked together for detection of ionized gas.

Star forming complexes G We found agreements between our measured centroid velocities and previous results for the 21 known HII regions in the mapped area. The distances for 44 out of these 55 new RRL sources were estimated. Numerical prediction of rail roughness growth on tangent railway tracks. Growth of railhead roughness irregularities, waviness is predicted through numerical simulation of dynamic train-track interaction on tangent track. The hypothesis is that wear is caused by longitudinal slip due to driven wheelsets, and that wear is proportional to the longitudinal frictional power in the contact patch.

Emanating from an initial roughness spectrum corresponding to a new or a recent ground rail, an initial roughness profile is determined. Wheel-rail contact forces, creepages and wear for one wheelset passage are calculated in relation to location along a discretely supported track model. The calculated wear is scaled by a chosen number of wheelset passages, and is then added to the initial roughness profile. Field observations of rail corrugation on a Dutch track are used to validate the simulation model.

Results from the simulations predict a large roughness growth rate for wavelengths around mm. The large growth in this wavelength interval is explained by a low track receptance near the sleepers around the pinned-pinned resonance frequency, in combination with a large number of driven passenger wheelset passages at uniform speed.

The agreement between simulations and field measurements is good with respect to dominating roughness wavelength and annual wear rate. Remedies for reducing roughness growth are discussed. Unified treatment of microscopic boundary conditions and efficient algorithms for estimating tangent operators of the homogenized behavior in the computational homogenization method. This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems.

An efficient procedure is developed to enforce the multi-point linear constraints arising from the microscopic boundary condition either by the direct constraint elimination or by the Lagrange multiplier elimination methods. The macroscopic tangent operators are computed in an efficient way from a multiple right hand sides linear system whose left hand side matrix is the stiffness matrix of the microscopic linearized system at the converged solution. The number of vectors at the right hand side is equal to the number of the macroscopic kinematic variables used to formulate the microscopic boundary condition.

As the resolution of the microscopic linearized system often follows a direct factorization procedure, the computation of the macroscopic tangent operators is then performed using this factorized matrix at a reduced computational time. For nearly 20 years, looking at the tangent point on the road edge has been prominent in models of visual orientation in curve driving. It is the most common interpretation of the commonly observed pattern of car drivers looking through a bend, or at the apex of the curve.

Yet, it remains to be empirically established whether it is the tangent point the drivers are looking at, or whether some other reference point on the road surface, or several reference points, are being targeted in addition to, or instead of, the tangent point. Recently discovered optokinetic pursuit eye-movements during curve driving can provide complementary evidence over and above traditional gaze-position measures.

This paper presents the first detailed quantitative analysis of pursuit eye movements elicited by curvilinear optic flow in real driving. The data implicates the far zone beyond the tangent point as an important gaze target area during steady-state cornering. This is in line with the future path steering models, but difficult to reconcile with any pure tangent point steering model.

We conclude that the tangent point steering models do not provide a general explanation of eye movement and steering during a curve driving sequence and cannot be considered uncritically as the default interpretation when the gaze position distribution is observed to be situated in the region of the curve apex. Experimental study of the convection in a rotating tangent cylinder.

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  • In the apparatus, the TC results from the Proudman-Taylor constraint incurred by rotating a hemispherical fluid vessel heated in its centre by a protruding heating element of cylindrical shape. The resulting convection that develops above the heater, i. Though exhibiting the same exponents as for plane rotating convection, these laws are indicative of much larger convective plumes at onset. The structure and dynamics of these plumes are in fact closer to those found in solid rotating cylinders heated from below, suggesting that the confinement within the TC induced by the Taylor-Proudman constraint influences convection in a similar way as solid walls would do.

    There is further similarity in that the critical modes in the TC all exhibit a slow retrograde precession at onset. In supercritical regimes, the precession evolves into a thermal wind with a complex structure featuring retrograde rotation at high latitude and either prograde or retrograde rotation at low latitudes close to the heater , depending on the criticality and the Ekman number. The MAPA accelerator modeling code symplectically advances the full nonlinear map, tangent map and tangent map derivative through all accelerator elements. The tangent map and its derivative are nonlinear generalizations of Browns first- and second-order matrices K.

    In order to avoid truncation of the map and its derivatives, the Hamiltonian is split into pieces for which the map can be obtained analytically. Yoshidas method H. Yoshida, Phys. A , pp. We discuss our splitting of the quadrupole and combined-function dipole Hamiltonians and show that typically few steps are required for a high-energy accelerator. Local electron tomography using angular variations of surface tangents : Stomo version 2.

    Supplementary material: Sample output files, for the test run provided, are available. Classification: 7. The algorithm does not solve the tomography back projection problem but rather locally reconstructs the 3D morphology of surfaces defined by varied scattering densities. Solution method: Local reconstruction is effected using image-analysis edge and ridge detection computations on experimental tilt series to measure smooth angular variations of surface tangent -line intersections, which generate point clouds decorating the embedded and or external scattering surfaces of a specimen.

    Reasons for new version: The new version was coded to cater for rectangular images in experimental tilt-series, ensure smoother image rotations, provide ridge detection suitable for sensing phase-contrast Fresnel fringes and other. A wide-ranging formulation for the viscosity of methane in the limit of zero density is presented. Using ab initio calculated data of Hellmann et al. The formulation was adjusted to the recalibrated experimental data of May et al. Int J Thermophys 28, , so that these are represented within their estimated expanded uncertainty of 0.

    Based on comparisons with original data and recalibrated viscosity ratio measurements, the expanded uncertainty of the new correlation is estimated outside this temperature range to be 0. At temperatures below K, the new correlation agrees with recalibrated experimental data within 0. Hellmann et al. They can be involved in a large range of applications such as sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation or the computation of characteristic vectors.

    A TAM is also required by the 4D-Var algorithm, which is one of the major methods in data assimilation. They can be involved in a large range of applications such as sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation or the computation of characteristics vectors. Molecular dynamics with rigid bodies: Alternative formulation and assessment of its limitations when employed to simulate liquid water. Sets of atoms collectively behaving as rigid bodies are often used in molecular dynamics to model entire molecules or parts thereof.

    This is a coarse-graining strategy that eliminates degrees of freedom and supposedly admits larger time steps without abandoning the atomistic character of a model. In this paper, we rely on a particular factorization of the rotation matrix to simplify the mechanical formulation of systems containing rigid bodies. We then propose a new derivation for the exact solution of torque-free rotations, which are employed as part of a symplectic numerical integration scheme for rigid-body dynamics. We also review methods for calculating pressure in systems of rigid bodies with pairwise-additive potentials and periodic boundary conditions.

    Finally, simulations of liquid phases, with special focus on water, are employed to analyze the numerical aspects of the proposed methodology. Our results show that energy drift is avoided for time step sizes up to 5 fs, but only if a proper smoothing is applied to the interatomic potentials.

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    Despite this, the effects of discretization errors are relevant, even for smaller time steps. These errors induce, for instance, a systematic failure of the expected equipartition of kinetic energy between translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Transformation formulas relating geodetic coordinates to a tangent to Earth, plane coordinate system. Formulas and their approximation were developed to map geodetic position to an Earth tangent plane with an airport centered rectangular coordinate system. The transformations were developed for use in a terminal area air traffic model with deterministic aircraft traffic.

    The exact configured vehicle's approximation equations used in their precision microwave landing system navigation experiments. A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter the plasma-side face is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

    Dielectric response of high permittivity polymer ceramic composite with low loss tangent. Subodh, G. The effective medium theory fits relatively well for the observed permittivity of these composites. Doubly stratified MHD tangent hyperbolic nanofluid flow due to permeable stretched cylinder. An investigation is exhibited to analyze the presence of heat source and sink in doubly stratified MHD incompressible tangent hyperbolic fluid due to stretching of cylinder embedded in porous space under nanoparticles.

    To develop the mathematical model of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid, movement of Brownian and thermophoretic are accounted. The established equations of continuity, momentum, thermal and solutal boundary layers are reassembled into sets of non-linear expressions. The impacts of sundry parameters are illustrated graphically and the engineering interest physical quantities like skin friction, Nusselt and Sherwood number are examined by computing numerical values. It is clear that the power-law index parameter and curvature parameter shows favorable effect on momentum boundary layer thickness whereas Weissennberg number reveals inimical influence.

    This report describes an experimental study of the effects of spin on. A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances. An electron tomography algorithm for reconstructing 3D morphology using surface tangents of projected scattering interfaces. Upon discerning the mere shape of an imaged object, as portrayed by projected perimeters, the full three-dimensional scattering density may not be of particular interest. In this situation considerable simplifications to the reconstruction problem are possible, allowing calculations based upon geometric principles.

    Here we describe and provide an algorithm which reconstructs the three-dimensional morphology of specimens from tilt series of images for application to electron tomography. Our algorithm uses a differential approach to infer the intersection of projected tangent lines with surfaces which define boundaries between regions of different scattering densities within and around the perimeters of specimens.

    Details of the algorithm implementation are given and explained using reconstruction calculations from simulations, which are built into the code. An experimental application of the algorithm to a nano-sized Aluminium tip is also presented to demonstrate practical analysis for a real specimen. Multiband tangent space mapping and feature selection for classification of EEG during motor imagery.

    When designing multiclass motor imagery-based brain-computer interface MI-BCI , a so-called tangent space mapping TSM method utilizing the geometric structure of covariance matrices is an effective technique. This paper aims to introduce a method using TSM for finding accurate operational frequency bands related brain activities associated with MI tasks. A multichannel electroencephalogram EEG signal is decomposed into multiple subbands, and tangent features are then estimated on each subband. A mutual information analysis-based effective algorithm is implemented to select subbands containing features capable of improving motor imagery classification accuracy.

    Thus obtained features of selected subbands are combined to get feature space. A principal component analysis-based approach is employed to reduce the features dimension and then the classification is accomplished by a support vector machine SVM. Offline analysis demonstrates the proposed multiband tangent space mapping with subband selection MTSMS approach outperforms state-of-the-art methods. The mutual information-based subband selection method is implemented to tune operation frequency bands to represent actual motor imagery tasks.

    Optimising the manufacture, formulation , and dose of antiretroviral drugs for more cost-efficient delivery in resource- limited settings: a consensus statement. It is expected that funding limitations for worldwide HIV treatment and prevention in resource- limited settings will continue, and, because the need for treatment scale-up is urgent, the emphasis on value for money has become an increasing priority. The antiretroviral drugs discussed were prioritised for consideration on the basis of their market impact, and the objectives of the conference were framed as discussion questions generated to guide scientific assessment of potential strategies.

    These strategies included modifications to the synthesis of the active pharmaceutical ingredient API and use of cheaper sources of raw materials in synthesis of these ingredients. Innovations in product formulation could improve bioavailability thus needing less API. For several antiretroviral drugs, studies show efficacy is maintained at doses below the approved dose eg, efavirenz, lopinavir plus ritonavir, atazanavir, and darunavir. Optimising pharmacoenhancement and extending shelf life are additional strategies. The conference highlighted a range of interventions; optimum cost savings could be achieved through combining approaches.

    New particle formation consists of two steps: nucleation and growth of nucleated particles. However, most laboratory studies have been conducted under conditions where these two processes are convoluted together, thereby hampering the detailed understanding of the effect of chemical species and atmospheric conditions on two processes.

    This research is a collaboration between the University of Alabama in Huntsville and the University of Delaware. Nucleation takes place in a temperature- and RH-controlled fast flow reactor FT-1 where sulfuric acid forms from OH radicals and sulfur dioxide.

    Sulfuric acid and impurity base compounds are detected with chemical ionization mass spectrometers CIMS. Particle sizes and number concentrations of newly nucleated particles are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer SMPS and particle size magnifier PSM , providing concentrations of particles between nm. The nucleation particles are transferred directly to the growth tube FT-2 where oxidants and biogenic organic precursors are added to grow nucleated nanoparticles.

    Sizes of particles after growth are analyzed with an additional SMPS and elemental chemical composition of 50 nm and above particles detected with a nano-aerosol mass spectrometer NAMS. TANGENT provides the unique ability to conduct experiments that can monitor and control reactant concentrations, aerosol size and aerosol chemical composition during nucleation and growth. Experiments during this first IOP study have elucidated the effects of sulfur dioxide, particle size. Tangent map intermittency as an approximate analysis of intermittency in a high dimensional fully stochastic dynamical system: The Tangled Nature model.

    It is well known that low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic maps close to a tangent bifurcation exhibit intermittency and this circumstance has been exploited, e. This suggests it is interesting to study the extent to which the behavior of a high-dimensional stochastic system can be described by such tangent maps. The Tangled Nature TaNa Model of evolutionary ecology is an ideal candidate for such a study, a significant model as it is capable of reproducing a broad range of the phenomenology of macroevolution and ecosystems. The TaNa model exhibits strong intermittency reminiscent of punctuated equilibrium and, like the fossil record of mass extinction, the intermittency in the model is found to be non-stationary, a feature typical of many complex systems.

    We derive a mean-field version for the evolution of the likelihood function controlling the reproduction of species and find a local map close to tangency. This mean-field map, by our own local approximation, is able to describe qualitatively only one episode of the intermittent dynamics of the full TaNa model. To complement this result, we construct a complete nonlinear dynamical system model consisting of successive tangent bifurcations that generates time evolution patterns resembling those of the full TaNa model in macroscopic scales. The switch from one tangent bifurcation to the next in the sequences produced in this model is stochastic in nature, based on criteria obtained from the local mean-field approximation, and capable of imitating the changing set of types of species and total population in the TaNa model.

    The model combines full deterministic dynamics with instantaneous parameter random jumps at stochastically drawn times.